The single most important blood test to know your risk of cardiovascular disease | ApoB Masterclass

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What is ApoB and why should you care? In this latest instalment of our masterclass series, I’ve distilled the essential insights about apolipoprotein B (ApoB) into one informative episode. Join top experts including Dr Thomas Dayspring, Dr William Cromwell, Danny Lennon, Dr Alan Flanagan, and Dr Gil Carvalho as they unravel the significance of ApoB as a crucial marker of cardiovascular health. This episode provides a thorough understanding of why ApoB matters and how it impacts your health.

“If any lipid concentrations are abnormal and your doctor tells you not to worry about it, find another doctor ASAP.” Dr Thomas Dayspring

This episode stands out for the exceptional calibre of scientists it features. Dr Thomas Dayspring, a Fellow of both the American College of Physicians and the National Lipid Association, is certified in internal medicine and clinical lipidology, and has delivered over 4000 lectures worldwide. Dr Alan Flanagan holds an MSc and PhD from the University of Surrey and is a renowned expert in nutrition. Dr Gil Carvalho is a respected physician and research scientist with extensive knowledge in nutrition and genetics. Dr William Cromwell, a lipidologist with over 35 years of clinical practice, brings a wealth of experience to the table. Danny Lennon, known for his expertise in interpreting the latest nutrition research, is a sought-after speaker on evidence-based nutrition. You’re in safe hands with these distinguished experts.

“ApoB is by far the best metric that every human should get tested for when they do their cardiovascular risk assessments.” Dr Thomas Dayspring

In this episode, we unpack the essentials of ApoB, covering its role in cholesterol transport and why it’s a key marker for heart disease risk. You’ll learn how ApoB affects cardiovascular health, from the way it modifies LDL particles to its impact on atherosclerosis and longevity. We discuss the best ways to measure ApoB, its normal levels, and what causes it to rise. The episode also explores the relationship between ApoB and saturated fats, and why it’s a more reliable risk marker than LDL cholesterol. By the end, you’ll have a clear understanding of why ApoB matters for your heart health and how it can help guide better health choices.

Specifically, we cover:

  • Introduction (00:00)
  • Lipoproteins & Cholesterol: Transport and Recycling (00:43)
  • Cholesterol’s Role in Lipoproteins (26:40)
  • Is ApoB a More Accurate Marker of Cardiovascular Risk? (31:13)
  • Endothelial Transcytosis of Lipoproteins (39:42)
  • LDL Modification and Aggregation (49:17)
  • Evidence for ApoB’s Role in Atherosclerosis (55:49)
  • ApoB and Genetics (58:29)
  • ApoB and Longevity (1:02:16)
  • Mechanisms Behind Elevated ApoB Levels (1:05:14)
  • Why ApoB is the Best Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease (1:08:52)
  • ApoB vs LDL-Cholesterol: Understanding the Discordance (1:21:00)
  • Healthy ApoB Levels for Young Adults (1:31:39)
  • Causes of Elevated ApoB Levels (1:45:16)
  • Target ApoB Levels for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (2:04:31)
  • The History and Evolution of the Lipid Hypothesis (2:07:27)
  • Role of ApoB Lipoproteins in Atherosclerosis (2:10:21)
  • Importance of ApoB as a Cardiovascular Risk Marker and Its Clinical Application (2:18:39)
  • Impact of Saturated Fat on ApoB and Cardiovascular Disease (2:27:47)
  • Top Saturated Fat Foods That Increase Cardiovascular Risk (2:33:53)
  • Impact of Saturated Fat on ApoB and Cardiovascular Disease (2:35:49)
  • Dietary Changes to Lower ApoB Levels (2:38:59)
  • Outro (2:45:54)

I highly recommend watching this episode on YouTube, where you’ll find informative on-screen graphics that make complex topics easier to grasp. This episode is a must-listen for anyone looking to live better for longer, so be sure to share it with friends or family members who might benefit from it.

Read more about the guests featured on this episode or connect with them on their respective pages on The Proof website: Dr Thomas DayspringDr William CromwellDanny LennonDr Alan Flanagan, and Dr Gil Carvalho.

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More about Thomas Dayspring, PhD

Thomas Dayspring, who resides in the Richmond, VA area is a Fellow of both the American College of Physicians and the National Lipid Association and is certified in internal medicine, and clinical lipidology. After practicing in New Jersey for 37 years, in 2012 he moved to Virginia and served as an educational director for a nonprofit cardiovascular foundation and later as a Chief Academic Advisor for two major CV laboratories until mid-2019. Currently, he is a virtual cardiovascular educational research assistant & clinical lipidologist at a prestigious national practice. Career-wise he has given over 4000 domestic (all 50 states) and international lectures, including over 600 CME programs on atherothrombosis, lipids/lipoproteins (and their treatment), vascular biology, biomarker testing, and women’s cardiovascular issues. He has authored several manuscripts and lipid textbook chapters and performed several podcasts. Until 2019 he was an Associate Editor of the Journal of Clinical Lipidology. He was the recipient of the 2011 National Lipid Association’s Presidents Award for services to clinical lipidology. He has over 25K followers on his educational Twitter feed (@Drlipid). He is a Social Media Ambassador for the European Atherosclerosis Society.

More about William Cromwell, MD

Dr Cromwell received his doctoral degree in medicine from the Louisiana State University School of Medicine in New Orleans, LA. He completed residency training at the Trover Clinic Foundation in Madisonville, KY, where he received one of twenty national Mead Johnson Graduate Fellowships. Subsequently, he completed postgraduate work in Lipid Disorders at the Washington University School of Medicine Lipid Research Center in St. Louis, MO.

Since 1990, Dr Cromwell’s practice has specialised in managing lipid (cholesterol and triglyceride) and lipoprotein (particles that carry lipids) disorders. In addition to over 30 years of clinical practice experience, his career includes 14 years of service as Medical Director/Division Chief of Lipoprotein and Metabolic Disorders at multiple institutions, six years as Chief Medical Officer of LipoScience, and four years as Strategic Director / Discipline Director of Cardiovascular Disease at LabCorp.

Dr Cromwell currently serves as the Medical Director and Principal Investigator at Velocity Clinical Research in Durham, NC, the Chief of the Lipoprotein and Metabolic Disorders Institute in Raleigh, NC, and an Adjunct Associate Professor in the Hypertension and Vascular Disease Center at Wake Forest University School of Medicine.

Dr Cromwell is a Diplomate of the American Board of Clinical Lipidology, a Diplomate of the American Board of Family Medicine, a Fellow of the American Heart Association Council on Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, a Fellow of the National Lipid Association, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Family Physicians.

Dr Cromwell has authored over two dozen peer-reviewed papers and invited book chapters on evaluating and managing lipoprotein disorders and lipoprotein analytics. He also has been an investigator in over 40 clinical research trials.

More about Danny Lennon, MSc

Danny is the founder of Sigma Nutrition, a company providing educational media content on evidence-based nutrition. Danny is the host of the top-ranked podcast Sigma Nutrition Radio, which as of 2021 has over 6 million downloads, and a monthly audience of ~100,000. His interest and knowledge spans across a number of different areas in nutrition. He has educated many nutritionists and coaches on how to program nutrition for their clients to improve body composition and adherence. Hundreds of coaches have attended his annual Sigma Nutrition Seminar over the past several years.

Danny uses his scientific background to read and interpret the latest nutrition research, before communicating the key points to his audience. In addition to his science background, Danny has also worked as a nutrition practitioner for several years. He has become well known for being the nutritionist to several professional MMA and boxing athletes. He wrote a successful book on this topic: “Sigma Weight Cutting System for MMA & Boxing”.

Danny is also a sought after speaker on evidence-based nutrition, speaking at conferences and seminars all over the world. He has resented at events all over Europe, Australia, and the United States. He has spoken at corporate organizations such as LinkedIn, Johnson & Johnson and Gilead Sciences.

More about Alan Flanagan, PhD

Dr Alan Flanagan, PhD, holds an MSc and PhD in nutrition from the University of Surrey, and is a former practicing Lawyer (Barrister) from Dublin, Ireland. Alan is the founder of Alinea Nutrition, an online education hub dedicated to providing impartial, science-based nutrition analysis. Alan is also Research Communication Officer for Sigma Nutrition, creating educational resources for nutrition science. Originally a lawyer by background in Dublin, Ireland, Alan spent a decade practicing as a barrister before moving into science.

More about Gil Carvalho, MD PhD

Gil Carvalho, MD PhD is a physician, research scientist, science communicator, speaker and writer. Dr. Carvalho trained as a medical doctor in the University of Lisbon, in his native Portugal, and later obtained a PhD in Biology from Caltech (California Institute of Technology). He has published peer-reviewed medical research spanning the fields of genetics, molecular biology, nutrition, behavior, aging and neuroscience.

In parallel with his research career, Dr. Carvalho also has a passion for science communication. In 2018, he launched Nutrition Made Simple, which aims to convey fundamental nutrition concepts to a lay audience via educational videos. His content has been watched by over a quarter million people.

Dr. Carvalho’s research contributions at Caltech, where he trained with pioneer geneticist Seymour Benzer, included the identification of genetic and nutritional mechanisms of longevity.

Dr. Carvalho also pursued research, with neuroscientist Antonio Damasio, on mechanisms of neural signal transmission in the sensory system and the neural basis of interoception and feeling.

He has been a member of the Genetics Society of America and the American Society for Neuroscience. His accolades include a Delill Nasser Award for Professional Development in Genetics and a Mathers Foundation award. Both his research contributions and his expert commentary are regularly featured in the media, including The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Nature Methods, the San Diego Union-Tribune, Quanta magazine and ScienceDaily. He is also a contributor to the Institute of Limbic Health and the T. Colin Campbell Center for Nutrition Studies.

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